The Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) controls the export, reexport, and transfer (in-country) of dual-use and certain military items through the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), including the Commerce Control List (CCL). Many items (commodities, software, and technology) subject to the jurisdiction of the EAR are listed on the CCL. Pursuant to the Export Control Reform Act of 2018, BIS and its interagency partners are engaged in a process to identify emerging and foundational technologies that are essential to the national security of the United States. Foundational technologies essential to the national security are those that may warrant stricter controls if a present or potential application or capability of that technology poses a national security threat to the United States. In order to determine if technologies are foundational, BIS will evaluate specific items, including items currently subject only to anti-terrorism (AT) controls on the CCL or those designated as EAR99. This ANPRM seeks public comment on the definition of, and criteria for, identifying foundational technologies. Comments on this ANPRM will help inform the interagency process to identify and describe such foundational technologies.